Cardiology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart and cardiovascular diseases. It involves a range of medical and surgical procedures, from preventive measures such as lifestyle changes and medication, to invasive procedures such as angioplasty and heart surgery.
With the increasing incidence of heart disease worldwide, cardiology is a crucial area of healthcare that has a significant impact on the health and well-being of patients. Our cardiovascular examination MCQ is a comprehensive tool that will test your knowledge of cardiology and help you expand your understanding. Get ready to test yourself below.
Which of the following is true in AF?
- The JVP has a single waveform rather than a double waveform
- It can be diagnosed without an ECG
- It is strongly associated with hypercholesterolaemia
- It carries no increased mortality compared to normal sinus rhythm
- The JVP characteristically has giant V waves
Post MI treatment
A patient makes a good recovery following emergency treatment. She is a non smoker. Her cholesterol is 3.1 (<5.5) with an HDL of 1.
Assuming she has no contraindications to any of the following which class of drugs should she take following her STEMI? (please select all that apply)
- ACE inhibitor
- Calcium Channel Blocker
- Thiazide diuretic
- Loop Diuretic
- Beta Blocker
A 62 year old man is breathless following his heart attack. He is unable to climb a flight of 10 stairs without stopping. Which of the following is true?
- He has NYHA (New York Heart Association) class I heart failure
- He has NYHA class II heart failure
- He has NYHA class III heart failure
- He has NYHA class IV heart failure
- NYHA class is not appropriate for use in patients who have sustained myocardial infarction.
A patient has mixed aortic valve disease. How could you make the diastolic murmur in this case louder?
- Roll the patient into the left lateral position
- Lie the patient flat
- Listen in expiration
- Listen in inspiration
- None of the above
Which of the following is not true of Mitral Regurgitation?
- The S1 can be soft
- The murmur is Pansystolic
- There is no A wave in the JVP
- The murmur may be due to functional dilation of the LV (e.g. in cardiomyopathy)
- It is a common cause of atrial fibrillation
A patient has ongoing pain and has ECG changes that are considered “thrombolysable”. Based on the available evidence what is the best treatment for her?
- Thrombolyse immediately
- Emergency Angiography +/- +/- plasty/stent *
- Either Thrombolysis or emergency angiography+/- plasty/ stent have almost identical outcomes
- Emergency Coronary artery Bypass Graft
- None of the above
In aortic stenosis with regards to the second heart sound which of the following is true?
- It does not “split”
- There is splitting of the S2 P2 (pulmonary) and A2 (aortic)
- There is reverse splitting of the S2
Man with blackouts
A man presents with blackouts. His cardiac exam is as follows:
Pulse: Slow rising
First heart sound (s1): normal
Second Heart sound (s2) : normal
Murmur: Ejection systolic and early diastolic rumbling murmur
What is the most likely diagnosis?
- Aortic Stenosis
- Aortic Stenosis with Aortic Regurgitation
- Aortic Stenosis with Mitral Regurgitation
- Mitral stenosis with mitral regurgitation
- Aortic Sclerosis
A man presents to a cardiology clinic with atypical chest pain occurring at rest. His GP has arranged a series of extensive investigation which have shown the following. The history is atypical but there is a suggestion of a possibility of exercise induced chest pain.
ECG: Left bundle branch block
CXR: Normal heart size
Blood tests: Normal
The patient is keen to have futher investigations. Which would you suggest as the least expensive and invasive test to clarify if he has coronary artery disease that is causing him symptoms?
- Coronary angiography
- Cardiac MRI
- Exercise tolerance test
- Myocardial Perfusion scan
- Right and left heart cardiac catherisation
A 76 year old man presents with atrial fibrillation which is permanent. He is lucid and has specifically made an appointment with you to discuss the best way of stopping him “dying ” as a result of the AF.
Hypertension (treated), Mild COPD. Nil else of note.
Verapamil (as treatment for AF)
Lives alone. Independent. Can carry out all ADL’s (activities of daily living)
What is the anticoagulation schedule you would recommend to prevent stroke?
d. No anticoagulation
e. Warfarin and Aspirin